LEDs - Seeing Double

Dual LEDLike I do so often, I'm being a bit redundant. While I'm all for stamping out and eliminating redundancy, this is redundancy with a purpose (not a porpoise). Not long ago, in a galaxy not far away, I blogged about annoyances in surface mount diode polarity markings. You can read that here.

I'll wait.

Messy isn't it? Well, after reading that blog, someone asked me about dual diodes. For some reason, I can't seem to find the page covering dual diodes in my IPC book, but that's not the important part. What is important is the way the diodes are marked on the PC board.

We do ask for centroid data which, in theory, contains the component rotation. That would be cool except that we find that far too often, the zero degree orientation (and the rotation from that) differs from the standard. That, and there are seemingly half a dozen or so standards.

Since LEDs don't work too well backwards, we really would like to see everything marked in a non-ambiguous way in silk screen (or in an assembly drawing if you don't have silk screen). A "cathode bar" won't work because it could be a bar indicating the cathode or negative. The cathode isn't always negative, especially when looking at TVS or Zener diodes.

Mimicking the diode markation pattern printed on the part may not be secure either. Read that article I linked to right at the start of this blog. What if you put silkscreen down to match one of those LEDs but ended up buying the other one? That's exactly what I did myself. Trust me. It just leads to disappointment and possible soldering iron induced finger burns.

So what is the answer, and why am I talking about single LEDs and TVS diodes when the blog is about dual LEDs? Well, the answer is the same. The best way to communicate the desired polarity of an LED or any kind of diode is with a mini version of the schematic symbol. It doesn't matter if it's a single LED, dual LED, Schottky, Zener or what ever kind of diode. The schematic symbol is the clearest way to go.

Led marking

The diode footprint has the manufacturer's polarity marking, but I don't care. I still put the diode schematic symbol next to it. If you don't have room for silk screen, put it in an assembly drawing. You won't regret it.

Duane Benson
And they called him Flipper...

DesignWest; San Jose April 23 - 25

DesignWest map 2013Will you be there? We will.

If you're in San Jose April 23, 24 or 25, stop by the McEnery Convention center, in San Jose, California. We're in booth 838 and would love to see you and say hi.

We'll be demoing our on line, real-time turn-key prototype quote and order system.

The show is open:

Tuesday 11:00am to 7:00pm
Wednesday 11:30am to 5:30pm
Thursday 11:30 to 4:00.

If you'd like, you can also look up the sessions I'll be speaking at:

Designing a Tele-Presence Robot - What Was I Thinking?
Processors and Programmable Devices
Session Code:   ESC-212
Location:   Salon 4
Date:   Tuesday, April 23, 2013
Time:   9:15 AM - 10:15 AM

FPGAs: I know nothing ... yet.
Lessons and Lessons Learned
Session Code:   STS-304
Location:  210 GH
Date:   Wednesday, April 24, 2013
Time:   2:00 PM - 2:45 PM

I also play a very small part in:

Gadget Freaks
Session Code: ET-06
Location: Expo Theater
Date: Tuesday, April 23, 2013
Time: 5:00 PM – 5:45 PM

and

10 Computer Languages in 45 Minutes
Tech Fundamentals
Session Code:   FUN-300
Location:  210 EF
Date:   Wednesday, April 24, 2013
Time:   8:30 AM - 9:15 AM

It will be a busy show and with all of the class sessions and exhibitor booths, there will be plenty to do. I think it's hot in San Jose now, so I'm going to leave my coat at home.

Duane Benson
Someone told me it's a long, long way, but I'm not walking so I don't care.

 

 

 

Creating a QFN Footprint - the center pad

I've written bits and pieces about creating footprints in Eagle and a lot about what the QFN solder paste layer should look like, so maybe it's time to connect the two dots. I'm using Eagle CAD here, so your process will likely be different unless you're using Eagle, but the concept should be the same. This process takes place in the package section of the Library editor. I'm assuming that you're already part way through and just need to put in the center pad.

Center pad Center pad position and sizeFirst, add the center pad to your QFN using the "Smd" tool and set the size based on the recommended pad size specified in your part datasheet.

The center of the pad should be located at 0,0 unless you have a QFN with odd shaped or multiple pads.

Make sure you un check the "Cream" box in the lower left corner as we'll be doing that manually.

After the pad is there and sized right, you need to add in the cream (solder paste) layer. You'll be drawing the cut-outs in the stencil with the rectangle tool. Use the rectangle tool to draw the stencil cut-outs. Set the rectangle to the "Cream" layer. In my installation of Eagle, the Cream layer defaults to layer 31.

Most parts should get 50 - 75% paste coverage to prevent floating (read this for more details). If your Stencil rectangle Stencil rectangle position and sizepart datasheet gives a specific number, use that. However, in my experience, most part datasheets just show a wide open stencil with 100% paste coverage. Unless you have good reason, don't do that.

Without any specific guidance, I usually aim for about 70%. In high volume manufacturing situations, the manufacturing engineers will likely spend time tweaking the coverage, but it'll be close and for a prototype, 70% is a good number.

Duane Benson

Screaming Circuits introduces new Cordwood assembly service!

Tired of all those small parts? Can't figure out how to route traces to all 1,900 balls on that hot new FPGA? If 0201 passives have you running scared and the thought of 0.3mm pitch parts has you on the floor, Screaming Circuits has the answer.

Take a few steps back and use our new Screaming CordwoodTM assembly process. It'll feel good to put your hands on a honk'n 2-Watt, through-hole resistor again. No need for fancy, multi-headed SMT assembly robots with Screaming Cordwood. No need for precision anymore. Just put those parts a quarter inch apart and you'll be suckin amps just like the good old days. And if you don't think it's high-tech enough; consider that Cordwood construction has taken man to the moon and back. You can't say that about surface mount!

5498264788174

Duane Benson
He likes both of me and I like both of him 'cause I live in a split-level head

Will a Via Fit Between?

I don't know that it would be accurate to say that BGA's have ever been easy, but with 0.4mm pitch being common and 0.3mm pitch showing up, some of the older size, like a WHOLE millimeter pitch seem 0.5mm pitch padspositively spacious. With 1mm and larger ball pitch, putting a via between the pads (not in the pads) is a no-brainer.

IPC-7095B classifies 0.8mm and smaller pitch as fine-pitch. It really starts to get complicated at around that point. For example, take a 0.5mm pitch BGA. Since we're looking to put a via between the pads, the diagonal pitch is the critical measurement. In this case, it's 0.71mm (17 mil). It might immediately seem like that's plenty of room for a 6 mil via, but upon closer examination, not so much.

0.5mm pitch pads viasIPC states that a 0.5mm pitch BGA will have a nominal pad diameter of 0.3 mm. It should be a non-soldermask defined pad, which will add about 0.07 mm to the pad diameter. That gives 0.44 mm total pad diameter. The radius is 0.22 mm (8 mil). Take that out of the 0.35 mm (14 mil) you have to work with and you're not left with much space.

If your fab house can do 3 mil trace and space, you will end up with enough room for a 0.06mm (5 mil) via, including annular ring. That's not much space. Most designers, at that point, will seriously consider putting the via in the land pad and having it filled and plated over. You can't leave the via open or un plated.

Duane Benson
All was in chaos, 'till Euclid arose and made order

 

More cautionary tails

I recently wrote about the horrors of LED marking variations. Unfortunately, LEDs aren't the only place to find inconsistencies in our world. Another part to keep a close eye on is the ubiquitous three-terminal voltage regulator. For just short of a million years, pretty much all three-terminal voltage regulators followed the 78XX convention. Lm7805 convention
It is not completely universal though. Is saying "completely universal" repetitive and redundant? There are some regulators that divert from convention in thru-hole and in SMT form-factors. Despite the overwhelming prevalence of the 74XX pin-out, you may find some parts that dispense with convention and can bite.

Take the LM1085, low drop out (LDO) regulator, for example. It looks, for all intents and purposes, to be a standard TO-220 or TO-263 three-pin regulator. You'd look at it and assume that it's a direct replacement for any old 75XX series. But, rather than In-Ground-Out, it's pinned as Ground-Out-In. The LM1117T is the same.

Mismatched SOT-223You might think: "Of course, it's different, the part numbering doesn't follow the 74XX number scheme." That sounds logical until you look at the LM2940. It follows the 74XX pin convention, as does the MIC39100. It's not the LDO specification that justifies change the pin-out either. The LM2940 is also an LDO.

Unlike the LED polarity issue, this one isn't as likely to bite you during assembly. The SMT regulators can only go onto the board one way. If your CAD library footprint is correct, it will be assembled correctly. The thru-hole can be easily reversed though if your silk-screen isn't clear. Marking pin 1 on the board (and checking the CAD footprint) is the recommended approach.

Duane Benson
In the land of the insane, only the sane are crazy.

How NOT to mark a diode

A while back, I wrote about ambiguity in the markings on electrolytic capacitors. In doing that, I cobbled together a little image to illustrate how surface mount electrolytics are marked. Take a look at the image below:

Capacitors

Note how I have illustrations showing how tantalum and metal can electrolytic capacitors are marked. Further note, that I have the capacitor schematic symbol there too. Finally, note that all three are oriented in the same direction. I have the plus side on the left and the negative side on the right.

Now for comparison, I have two nearly but not quite identical 0805 SMT LEDs in the following photo. Look at the photo of the two LEDs below. I did not alter this image in any way. The mark on the LED image could be interpreted either way. The bump could be seen as pointing toward the cathode, since it is the cathode mark. Or, The line could be on the side of the cathode. That would make sense because the line on the schematic symbol represents the cathode.

There's one final thing to look at - wait for the punchline:

Backwards markings

The punchline is that the  cathode is on the left on both of these LEDs in the photo. I have empirically determined that to be the case, both by putting them on a board and by subjecting them to a diode checker. Punchline number two is that both are correct according to their respective datasheets. The following excerpts from their respective data sheets shows the problem.Reverse marked LEDs

And, drum-roll please ... The third punchline is that both of these parts are from the same manufacturer!

If your board uses SMT LEDs, send the datasheet with your assembly order. Include it as a PDF in your files set. It would also behoove you to double check your CAD library footprint against your specific part number datasheet. IPC says the cathode is pin-one and pin-one zero degree orientation is with pin-one to the left.

Duane Benson

Forward, the LED pick and place
Was there a machine dismayed?
Not tho' the engineers knew
Someone had blundered
Cathodes to right of them
Cathodes to left of them
Cathodes behind them
And I cannot reason why

More Beagle CAD Paws

Continuing on from my last post...

As I said, I do everything I can to avoid re-using the package footprint when adding the the parts library in Eagle CAD. The schematic symbol can be a different story though. It still takes a lot of caution, but it's less risky (in my opinion) than reusing the package footprint.

Eagle version 6 made some improvements in the way copy and paste works. It's still a little different from your typical word processor, but it's not that difficult.

Eagle footprint menu bar 3 buttonsBut before I get to that, I want to mention one item that caused me a fair amount of confusion early on. And that's the way all of this fits together. There are three buttons you will need to worry about. From left to right in the green oval are; the device, the package footprint, and the schematic symbol. In my last post, I pointed out the package footprint and today I'm talking about the schematic symbol.

Really, you only build the footprint and the schematic symbol. Then you connect the two up to create the devices. And, you can build the footprint or schematic symbol in either order, but you have to have them both before the last step (the icon in the green oval with four little AND gates).

If you're using a chip that comes in a couple of different packages (e.g. DIP28, SOIC28, TSSOP28) you most likely only need to make one schematic symbol. You can make the multiple footprints and connect them up in the device section as different variants of the same part.

There are a few exceptions though. Sometimes QFN, QFP or BGA parts will have a few extra pins. In those cases, it may be better to create a different schematic symbol.

Duane Benson
This solder paste stencil glows blue when goblins are around

Beagle CAD paw prints

Unfortunately, I can't generically hand out Eagle CAD QFN footprints without knowing the specific part, but I can illustrate the areas I initially had difficulty with. All of the traps that used to get me seem blindingly obvious now, but they weren't when I first tried to make my own library parts.

The very first thing I would recommend is to make your own library file. When I started in with my own parts, I would just add them to an existing library. For example, I'd put a new Microchip PIC processor into the "microchip.lbr" library. It seemed the logical choice because there are other similar parts to start with. But, when it's time to upgrade, migration of those custom parts becomes a nightmare. So, now all of my custom parts go into "dfb-parts.lbr."

Eagle footprint menu barSpeaking of modifying existing parts, another recommendation I have is, except for parts where the package footprint is EXACTLY the same, start from scratch with the package footprint.

The schematic symbol is easier to reuse - just make sure you have the right pins in the right place - but subtle differences in the copper footprint can have a big difference at the assembly stage.

Datasheet footprint page land patternI also don't try to hand size and hand position the pads on the silk screen. Start by just putting a pad in the footprint area. The use the Properties/Info button (the big "i") and use the dimensions given in the data sheet to enter the size and position by number.

Look for the "recommended land pattern" or similar diagram toward the end of the component datasheet. Entering the numbers in the Properties/Info box will bypass any position precision issues. Just make sure that you use the right units (i.e. metric to metric).

Stay tuned for the next installment.

Duane Benson
World to end at 9:30. Details at 11:00

The ESD Habbit, or an Unexpected Shock.

Excitement is building here. In a little over two weeks from today, The Hobbit movie will be released to theaters. I'm sure everyone reading here knows the story, but in case you don't I'll spoil it for you.

It's a story about Biblio who is, according to Spock, the bravest little hobbit of them all (google that if you don't get the reference. You'll be glad you did). Biblio is minding his own open source robotics business when the Wizard of Menlo Park (in CA, not NJ) invites 12 MCU designers over for a meal and discussion about the merits of hardware peripherals vs. bit-banged peripherals. The MCU guys convince Biblio to go with them to The Lonely Mountain Chip Fab and help them kill a terrible ESD Spike problem. Actually, it's the Wizard that convinces the MCU guys that Biblio could help. The next day the MCU folks left early and Biblio ran out to catch up with them without even an ESD smock.

The ESD problem came from the North because it's more humid up North and that tends to dissipate ESD. Our Terrible Spike didn't like the idea of being dissipated without having first destroyed a few gold interconnect wires. The MCU guys need those gold interconnects to remain intact, so they brought a secret encryption key and enlisted help from the technician Biblio.

First though, they had to get past the TO-92 packaged parts that wanted to squash them into jelly or tacky flux. Fortunately, despite the bumbling of technician Biblio, the Wizard bought solder with no-clean flux which made the TO-92 parts stop moving once applied. After the TO-92 parts stopped working in daylight, they made a brief stop to inspect the last Homely Chip Fab in the Silicon Valley and see where the light sensitivity came from.

Passing over the Siskiyou Mountains on the way to Oregon and The Lonely Mountain Chip Fab, it started raining so they went into a cave and ate porc for dinner. Biblio ate so much that he fell asleep in the corner behind a chair where no one could see him and his buttons popped off. The missing buttons didn't bother him too much because those ones had a de-bounce problem anyway. Luckily, they weren't Grayhill switches or they would have hates Biblio forever, even if he used an ancient gold Tolkien-ring network to bypass more porcs.

Biblio wasn't the most skilled technician and he caught his pine cones on fire while trying to solder new switches into place, but the wizard was able to re-layout the board using Eagle CAD and an FPGA that could take many forms and would satisfactorily control the machinery and bears at the local honey production facility. But the FPGA brought them all into the murky world of Verilog and VHDL. That would have been fine except that the search engine spiders hadn't crawled the eleven Wikipedia pages they needed to properly map out the clock routing.

The MCU guys got hungry and wouldn't wait for Biblio to come back with pi so they rushed in causing so much in rush current that the lights went out with a snap. After eleven clock cycles in his new hall-effect switch, Biblio knew that the de-bounce problem would be gone except when he plugged the barrel jack into his Apple computer. But with no static guards to wine too, he had no choice but to use the Apple barrel jacks to get power to MCUs and switch open the flip flop made from a streaming-transistor logic gate.

Annoyingly, they split the story in two and the movie will end at this point. We'll have to wait another year to see if Silicon Oakensubstrate is robust enough to kill the terrible ESD spike and pass final QC.

Duane Benson
One oven to reflow them all